There is much to be learned and understood about social entrepreneurship, including why it should be given importance in our social and
    cultural context. Social entrepreneurship is met at crossroads of social activism and provision of social service. It involves both the will and the
    vision of the entrepreneur, how he/she wants to serve life. Does it involve any meaningful purpose? If so how does it differ from an ordinary
    entrepreneur or a businessman? Whether it is the “audacity of hope” or “time for new idea”, social entrepreneurship certainly involves a level of
    charisma and mystery of miracle engulfed around it. Why people would like to wear this hallowed hat? What leadership characteristics and
    behaviors are hallmark of social entrepreneurship and help to realize their mission? Whether it is concern for people or for profits which moves
    and motivates social entrepreneurs is the topic of my paper and while seeking examples from local and international perspectives, the
    presentation will try to establish an active link between the interpersonal and service centered leadership role of the entrepreneur and the
    miracles that can bring change in contemporary life and living of people.
Copyright 2010 Jehan-i-Seema. All rights reserved.
All material in this page is original writing of  Seema Arif. Using it in any form of publication and
print media without prior permission will be considered against violation of rights. While quoting in
research papers proper referencing should be used.
    Social Entrepreneurship and Role of Leadership

    YES’ 10, National conference The Impact of Social Entrepreneurship in Pakistan – Strategic Implementation University of Central Punjab
    Lahore. Pakistan.
    June 11, 2010
    Maulana Jalal ud Din Muhammad Rumi: The Sage of All Ages

    International Sultan Divani and Mevlevilik Symposium
    Afyon  Kocatepe University and Afyonkarahisar Municipality,
    Afyon, Turkey.
    May 27-29,  2010

    My paper is in response to a letter by Will Durant, the letter he wrote to his contemporary scholars after being disillusioned by outcomes of
    World War II *. He has questioned the validity of scientific knowledge produced by Scientific Revolution in creating peace and order in the world.
    Further, he has asked scholars about real meaning and worth of human life in relation to religion and spiritualism. Today we are standing at the
    same crossroads again. The world is at clash and humanity is risking its survival as war of terror continues. Everyone is seeking peace and
    sustenance for future. We are confused, troubled, dejected and we have lost our joy in living. Miserably, we are looking for some guidance to
    deliver us from this pain, for some knowledge leader who has the right answers of human problems and who can restore smile on the face of
    earth. Many contemporary scholars label it as “failure of Enlightenment” such as Wilson, the socio-biologist or the socio-economist
    Schumacher  who lament with Durant  the death of human wisdom in birth of human intelligence, leading to greater bigotry and breach of
    human faith than ever. Firstly, we would like to observe what is this “failure” and how it is “pronounced”. Then we would like to seek its solution
    in our traditional wisdom emphasizing upon learning from Maulana Rumi the art of Life.


    In the current study, mixed method case study approach was used to investigate student satisfaction with enrollment and advisory services
    offered at the beginning of every new term at the university. The following variables are employed in the study based on literature available on
    enrollment and advising (Kuh, 2006; Pascarella and Terenzini, 2005 and Smith and Allen, 2006), leadership and management (Fiedler, 2008;
    Fiedler and Gibson, 2001 and Goleman, et al., 2002) and importance of quality services (Deming, 1986; Burgar, 1994; Sahin and shelly, 2008
    and Roberts and Styron, 2010). The qualitative data was codified using interpretive analysis, whereas, student survey results were interpreted
    using exploratory factor analysis, stepwise regression analysis and structure equation modeling. Model, estimated as a structural equation
    model, is proposed to understand better what predicts student satisfaction from advising and enrollment services?  Results suggest that as
    long as students lack in autonomy, and they perceive lack of empowerment of faculty, their satisfaction with the enrollment and advisory
    services will be affected negatively and will result in weak word of mouth.

    Keywords: Perception of quality services. Leadership. Empowerment. Student satisfaction. Student loyalty.
    The Role of Empowerment and Systems Thinking to Improve Student Enrollment
    University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    August 23 - 25, 2010
    Relationship between Occupational Stress, Job Satisfaction and Job Burnout among Doctors
    National Conference on Research in Psychology
    National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-e-Azam University,
    Islamabad, Pakistan.  
    October 14th, 2010

    Objective: A quantitative survey was conducted to identify sources of stress, evaluate professional satisfaction and dissatisfaction, and predict
    burnout among doctors working in public and private hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan.
    Method: The study was conducted using survey method. The study questionnaire consisted of (1) the three universally recognized components
    of burnout, i.e. emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and professional efficacy adapted from ‘The Maslach Burnout Inventory’ (MBI) (1996);
    (2) items to measure occupational stress and satisfaction adapted from Ramirez et al. (1996) and (3) questions about alternative work choices,
    Data was collected with a team of students who collected data by personal visits to 3 public and 6 private hospitals in Lahore. 800
    questionnaires were administered, 500 in public hospitals and 300 in private hospitals. Only 600 were recovered which were complete and were
    used for data analysis through SPSS and AMOS. Regression techniques (Logistic and Stepwise regression) were applied to obtain models that
    could predict relationship between various factors of stress and job burnout.
    Findings: The main results were as follows. Occupational stress was significantly positively related to all burnout dimensions (p < 0.05), The
    scores of job burnout of the doctors (both surgeons and physicians) were significantly influenced by work and organizational related stress
    factors, while satisfaction was more related to personal and social factors. The scores of emotional exhaustion (EX) were significantly higher in
    the 35 to 45 year age group and the score of depersonalization was high among doctors above 45 years of age. Sense of professional efficacy
    (PE) increased with educational status and decreased with age. Under stepwise regression, the main significant predictors of EX were
    unexpected load of work, unrewarded work, perceptions of unfairness and academic work pressure. The main significant predictors of PE were
    controlled work environment, better interpersonal relationships, and cognitive coping (p < 0.05).
    Implications: Increased burnout is responsible for doctors quitting public sector jobs and entering private markets. Not only the result is loss of
    quality of human resource professionals in public health sector, increasing feeling of depersonalization and indifference among health providers
    is taking “human compassion and care” out of this humane profession. In order to deal effectively with the negative impact on the total quality of
    health care, better policy making and organizational efforts aimed at reducing occupational stress and strengthening doctors’ coping resources
    are required which could help prevent job burnout among doctors.
    Technology has helped many organizations to carryout self services, enabling stakeholders/employers to make personal choices, thus,
    promoting autonomy as well as maintaining interpersonal communication through multiple channels (O’Sullivan, 2000, Baym et al., 2004; Suzzane
    et al., 2009). Organizational research is aimed at finding out ways and means to reach at best combination of technology and human agency that
    would most satisfy customers as well as keep the costs down. This drive, however, is known to create efficiency/inefficiency paradox regarding
    use of technology and related services, which some users perceive as ‘facilitative’, while others regard it as time consuming and causing delays,
    still others take it as impediment in interpersonal relationships.

    This study aims to know about effective management of the interpersonal and technological linkages between the university management and
    technology, technology and faculty, and technology and students to improve all stakeholders’ satisfaction with delivery of technology services,
    related not only to teaching and learning but other operations like student advising and enrollment as well.  A satisfaction survey was conducted
    with 400 students of a private university. The results were analysed using multifactor analysis and binary logistic regression to find out student
    satisfaction and dissatisfaction with various technology related operations.
    The findings demonstrate significant risk factors associated with negative word of mouth as a result of poor operations relating to advising and
    enrollment as well as teacher’s poor use of technology during lectures.
    Managing Delivery of Technology Related Services for Student Satisfaction
    College of Statistical and Actuarial Sciences
    University of the Punjab, Quaid-i-Azam Campus, Lahore, Pakistan.
    November 25-27, 2010
Research Abstracts (2010-11)


    Amratya Sen had said “poverty is by choice”…whether the statement implies on individuals only or nations, it is a common understanding that the
    countries which are unable to exploit their key asset- the human resource in capable of ways remain poor. Poverty and ill-health are intertwined.
    Poor countries tend to have worse health outcomes than better-off countries, as poverty leads to undernourished bodies (through lack of healthy
    and nutritious food) and underdeveloped minds (due to lack of education and training). No doubt, underdeveloped nations are product of poverty.
    People lack in stamina for work and have lesser work life than healthy and affluent people.

    In most poor countries, the health problems start at very early level, during or after birth or in infancy, which linger on in life and cause a mammoth
    of socio-economic problems. It is said nip the evil in the bud, therefore, an effective health system comprising efficient work force is needed. It is
    also evident that doctors do not make the whole health work force; there are nurses, and other trained and semi trained staff serving the needs of
    rural community, constituting major population of the country. Since prosperity of future nation will not depend on size of population but it will
    depend upon the size of quality human resource, improvement of quality of Primary health care services becomes even more important.

    Primary health sector needs were assessed through a comprehensive exploratory research using mixed-methods in 5 districts of Central Punjab,
    Pakistan. A systemic analysis was done on the findings and model was suggested for improvement of quality of services using a human resource,
    capacity building approach, emphasizing on development of an efficient Para-medical work-force to fight against poverty and ill health. Results will
    be shared, both in written report form and power-point presentation.
    Fighting the double edged dragon: poverty and ill-health

    International Symposium on MDGs: Local Engagement Vs Global Impact - A Call for Help in Rebuilding Pakistan hosted by The University of
    Central Punjab, Lahore. Pakistan, dated 20 January, 2011.
    Creating a Quality Teaching-Learning Environment

    The 18th International Conference on Learning
    University of Mauritius, Mauritius
    July 5-8, 2011

    Private universities in Pakistan offer modular programs for higher education and operate as business to earn profits. Whether the drive to earn
    profits call for compromise with the service, i.e. education? What is the role played by the internal customers (teachers) to deliver quality of the
    service to the primary customers (students)?  Research was carried out in five private universities of  Lahore, Pakistan to determine the
    relationship if existed between the perception of service quality as perceived by customers of higher education, i.e. students and faculty as
    means of satisfaction and its impact upon the word of mouth for the respective university. The study raised the critical questions: 1) how do
    customers vary in their perception of service quality, i.e. students and the teachers? Whether this variance can affect the loyalty of its
    customers? The study sample comprised 800 students and 200 teachers from five universities situated in or nearby Lahore, Pakistan. The
    study has used exploratory factor analysis to identify satisfying and dissatisfying factors both for the students and the faculty. Furthermore,
    systemic analysis has been done to draw system dynamics model to identify relationships between various factors. Though many would argue
    that both students and teachers are partners in creating teaching learning environment in the university, thus, they themselves are responsible
    for quality learning; but the results have highlighted the third dimension: we cannot ignore the significant role of leadership in service delivery?
    Time management is one of the most important elements of the service delivery and delay in decision making or service delivery can cost the
    university a fortune.