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Research Abstracts (2012)
    Reputation of Private Universities in Pakistan and its Impact upon Student Satisfaction and Loyalty

    IBA International Conference on Marketing  (IBAICM 2012)
    26 to 28 February 2012
    Karachi, Pakistan

    Background: Ranking of private universities is an emerging phenomenon in Pakistan after the establishment of Higher Education Commission
    (HEC) in Pakistan. Ranking is becoming need of time as more universities are competing for business and profit.  Private universities exist for
    profit and compete for business both with the public and other private universities. Thus, student retention is crucial for such institutions and it
    can be best assured through service quality and student satisfaction. Moreover, university image has much to do with establishing the brand in
    market to attract quality students and faculty. Brown and Mazzarol (2008) have suggested that the university reputation or the institutional image
    has strong relationship with the perceived loyalty and belongingness with the institution. According to them the student satisfaction had weak and
    indeterminate link with the service quality of both types “human ware” (people and processes) and “hardware” (tangibles and facilities). This
    hypothesis has been checked with the students of seven private universities in Pakistan.  
    Purpose: In Pakistan, many public universities have an established image, but newly established private universities are still struggling to
    establish their name and brand in the market. A study has been conducted to know how much their efforts have been fruitful so far. The aim of
    study has been to know the variance among behavior of higher education consumers (students) as they buy the service from private universities
    in Pakistan. It further aims to know, 1) whether the universities have been able to transform their consumers into loyal and engaged customers?
    2) What is the role of university’s perceived value contributing to student satisfaction and loyalty?
    Design & Methodology: A quantitative survey was held in seven private universities (3 in Lahore and one each in Gujranwala, Faisalabad,
    Rawalpindi & Islamabad) with 1500 students. The instrument was constructed consisting of 42 items for this purpose suiting the theoretical
    framework drawn from extensive literature review. The data has been collected within three schools of each university from undergraduate and
    graduate students using convenience sampling.
    Findings:  The multivariate effects of satisfaction across universities were measured through MANOVA. Discriminant analysis has been the most
    critical tool used for analysis, as not only it could distinguish between satisfied and dissatisfied students, but also predicted the strength of word of
    mouth and intentions to stay in the university  through  six service quality indicators (teaching, management, leadership, campus life, academic
    services and infrastructure).  Structure Equation Models procured for satisfaction, dissatisfaction and no-dissatisfaction were able to distinguish
    strategic paths adopted by universities in their pursuit of service quality and student satisfaction. Results indicate that people and process are
    more important than infrastructure. It is not the teaching, but the leadership and management that mark all the differences in satisfied and
    unsatisfied behaviors of higher education customers.
    Limitations: The study has been limited to “W” category universities only in the province of Punjab. The sample size is small but results are
    highly significant for upcoming universities who want to establish their business in highly lucrative industry – higher education.
    Implications: The study outlines differences between the satisfiers and dis-satisfiers and predicts the future trend of higher education market,
    providing newly established universities the guidelines to compete in relatively deregulated market. Moreover, it provides HEC the valuable
    information to focus for building future criterion of ranking for private universities in Pakistan.

    Keywords: Higher education. Private universities. Ranking. Service quality. Student satisfaction. Loyalty.

    21st century is recognized as age of knowledge where knowledge creation, innovation and knowledge management are much celebrated but
    what about knowledge workers? Though we frequently come across rhetoric relating to the rights of knowledge workers stated in terms of work-
    life balance or quality of work-life in corporate world; still we observe craving for respect and recognition among the valued knowledge workers
    more so in developing countries like Pakistan. University teachers are no exceptions who are the chaperones of society preparing a work-force
    to meet the high-tech needs of industry, business and service organizations. After advent of globalization universities are managed like private
    businesses becoming knowledge corporate. Therefore the knowledge managers of this modern corporate think for themselves of the same
    status and facilities as provided to their counterparts in other industries especially when the load is increasing on them both for knowledge
    dissemination (teaching) and knowledge production (research). The research was carried out to know how teachers of private universities in
    Pakistan are meeting this challenge; how do they view their work environment and whether this working environment is helping them to become
    valued human beings or not?
    A quantitative survey was held with 360 faculty members of private universities of Lahore in order to find their perceptions about quality of work
    life and its spill-over effect on employee commitment, employee engagement, and reputation of the university. It was found out that perceived
    value of work, work stress, work life balance and satisfaction with relationships in life are the major factors which shape work attitudes of faculty
    working in private universities of Pakistan. The results show that overall perception of quality of work-life is rather weak and it has little or no
    spillover effect on employee commitment and their engagement and involvement.
    Practitioner points:
    •        The study has drawn scholarly attention towards dominant constructs of QWL playing important role in shaping attitude towards work, life
    and relationships of faculty of private universities.  
    •        At practice level the study hints at the possible implications of dissatisfaction and imbalance on employee commitment and engagement
    and even the reputation of the university
    Keywords: Quality of Work Life. Work Life Balance. Employee Engagement. Higher Education. Private university. Job involvement. Job
    Quality of Work-Life Model for Teachers of Private Universities in Pakistan

    International Conference on
    Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Trends, Challenges, and Applications

    National Institute of Psychology
    Quaid-e-Azam University
    Islamabad. Pakistan.
    (April 19th, 2012)

    An exploratory research was conducted with students of a private business school in Pakistan to know what students really ‘want’ from their
    teachers. What is their understanding of ‘learning’ and which teaching practices promote satisfaction among them? An open ended survey was
    administered to collect opinions of undergraduate students about the traits and behaviors of teachers they like the most followed by interviews with
    five ‘best’ teachers recommended by students to reach at the holistic picture of ‘best teaching learning practices’ through interpretive analysis.
    The results demonstrate that students want learning to be more of an ‘affective experience’ than a plain ‘cognitive one.’

    Keywords: Best practices; Teaching and learning; Higher education; Student engagement; Interpersonal relationships.
    The Best is Always Happiness

    Published in:
    Academic Research International (ARInt.)".
    Vol. 02 No. 01, January 2012 issue
    Student Satisfaction with Services in Private Universities of Pakistan: The Impact of Leadership

    The Fourth Canadian Quality Congress,
    Carleton University,
    Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    (June 27-29, 2012)


    Research was conducted in seven private universities of Pakistan using quantitative survey to know extent of student satisfaction with services
    provided and its impact upon loyalty behaviors and ranking of their respective university. MANOVA reported significant multivariate effect of
    the seven universities on the dependent measures of student service quality indicators. It was identified through discriminant analysis that
    students’ perceived quality of six indicators (teaching, management, leadership, campus life, academic services and infrastructure) could not
    only distinguish between satisfied and dissatisfied students, but it can also predict the strength of positive word of mouth as well as intentions
    to stay in the university. The findings conclude that leadership factor related to planning the outcomes of service imply most significant
    influence over student satisfaction. Similarly ranking of university will be affected by leadership strategies ensuring positive outcomes like
    better jobs and salaries and students’ choice of future education rests upon academic environment rather than infrastructure or other
    reputational measures.

    Keywords: Total quality management. Service quality. Higher education. Student satisfaction. University Ranking